官方报告

  • 官方报告
    • 改善中央空调效率的十条提示

    • "Heat transfer has the greatest single effect on chiller performance. Large chillers can have more than five miles of condenser and evaporator tubes, so high heat transfer is fundamental to maintaining efficiency. Chiller efficiency declines rapidly when tubes become fouled. Contaminants, such as minerals, scale, mud, algae and other impurities, increase thermal resistance and reduce overall performance. These contaminants accumulate on the water side of heat transfer surfaces in both closed- and open-loop systems. Fouling occurs gradually over time, depending on the quality and temperature of the water used."
      http://www.plantservices.com/articles/2004/192.html
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      中央空调的挑战—能源效率

    • Purchasing the most efficient chiller is only the first step in minimizing energy costs. Once installed, an organization must maintain the chiller properly if it is to perform as efficiently as possible. In most cases, any savings produced by cutting back on chiller maintenance will be more than offset by increased energy costs… Another critical ongoing maintenance task is properly treating water in both the chilled-water and condenser-water loops to prevent scale, corrosion and biological growth. Any accumulation of these contaminants will result in a rapid decrease in operating efficiency”.
      http://www.facilitiesnet.com/ms/article.asp?id=4303
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      发电厂冷凝器污垢的解决办法

    • “Fouling is a very important problem for condensers and heat exchangers. All industrial circuits cooled with natural fresh and marine water are affected by the phenomenon of biological fouling consisting in biofilm growth and settlements of several kinds of living organisms. Biofouling is detrimental to open cooling systems as it causes undesirable effects, such as efficiency loss inside the heat exchanger”,
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      内螺旋粗糙肋管使用低速冷却塔水的污垢特性

    • “This paper provides long-term cooling tower water fouling data in seven 15.54 mm I.D. copper, helically ribbed tubes taken at low water velocity (1.07 m/s). The ranges of geometric parameters were number of rib starts (18–45), helix angle (25–45_), and height (0.33–0.55 mm). These geometries provide a new class of internal enhancement that is typical of commercially enhanced tubes presently used in water chillers”.
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      执行维护程序

    • “Online cleaning has the greatest potential advantage for a plant owner…Mechanical techniques include methods such as injecting rubber balls into the cooling fluid upstream of the heat exchanger and collecting them downstream in a special filter”
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      维护问题和降低能耗

    • "The WCM was experiencing severe problems caused by the fouling of cooling coils and other components of its cooling systems....The facilities management staff initiated the solution, which was eventually installed on multiple feeds in the UAH WCM facility and in multiple locations on the District Cooling System by the University of Alberta’s Utility Group."
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